Your cat’s microbiome

We still have a lot to learn about the feline microbiome, but what we do know can help us take important steps to improving and maintaining our cats’ gut health.

Over the last decade, researchers have gained a better understanding of the human microbiome and its importance to health and well-being. We now know that the trillions of bacteria living in and around our bodies contribute to health or disease, and even change how our brains function. We also know that each individual has a unique microbiome that changes on a daily basis. More recently, researchers have begun looking at the microbiomes of animals, including cats, and are finding some of these same characteristics. Let’s look at the feline microbiome, and what you can do to help support your own cat’s gut health.

What does “microbiome” mean?

The microbiome is a community of bacteria and other microbes that inhabit living organisms and impact overall health in many different ways. While we generally think of bacteria as the organisms that make us sick, the microbiome is home to trillions of beneficial bacteria that help digest food, shape the immune system, and maintain a healthy weight.

A cat’s gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of organisms that can be affected by many factors — including diet, underlying biology, and the development of his microbiome (i.e. the environment he was raised in, and the food he grew up eating). For this reason, there can be a lot of diversity between the microbiomes of different cats.

The feline microbiome – research is ongoing

  • AnimalBiome is a company that has been testing thousands of cat microbiome samples over time. “We have used this data set to understand the core microbiome in healthy cats, and to explore how the microbiome differs in cats with chronic enteropathies (often referred to as inflammatory bowel disease), gastrointestinal lymphoma, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV),” says CEO Holly H. Ganz, PhD.
  • Dr. Ryan Honaker, Director of Microbiology at Nom Nom, is an expert in microbiome manipulation, infection therapeutics, and microbial community profiling. “Scientists are just beginning to understand some of the immense complexities of the human microbiome, and there have been far fewer studies done on cats,” he says. The company has been collecting microbiome data since the end of 2018. “There’s so much we don’t know, but such a potential to make an impact on feline health across a variety of illnesses,” says Dr. Honaker. “We know there’s a large degree of variability between cats, and their microbiome is complex, which means we need a lot of data to be able to make sense of it.”

A cat’s gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of organisms that can be affected by many factors.

Keeping your cat’s microbiome healthy

  1. A minimally-processed raw or gently-cooked diet made from whole food ingredients is key to keeping your cat’s microbiome as healthy as possible. “Both raw and gently-cooked diets are excellent for overall gut health,” says Jodi Ziskin, a Certified Pet Nutrition Consultant. “There are more bio-appropriate foods available now than ever before, making it easier for people to provide an excellent real food diet to their cats.” Jodi also stresses the importance of avoiding by-products, rendered ingredients, fillers, and artificial additives and flavorings, as these can disrupt the gut microbiome.
  2. Adding a good probiotic supplement, under the guidance of a holistic or integrative veterinarian, can also help. “Probiotics can benefit all cats, but especially those with existing gastrointestinal issues,” says Lori. “It is important to offer a product that’s formulated to withstand the feline’s stronger stomach acids. Probiotics regulate gut flora, help the body absorb and assimilate nutrients, strengthen the immune system, and help keep the digestive tract in working order.”
  3. Prebiotics also play an important role in restoring and maintaining gut health. They nourish and support the growth of good bacteria, which in turn help to control the bad bacteria. “We are increasingly aware that prebiotics — substances that promote a healthy environment in the gut for the good bacteria — are probably as important as the bacteria themselves,” says holistic veterinarian Dr. Andrea Tasi. Again, it’s important to work with your own vet when choosing and using a prebiotic product.
  4. For cats with severe microbiome imbalances, a fecal transplant using a procedure called Microbiome Restorative Therapy (MBRT) may be the answer to restoring gut health. While this therapy is fairly new to veterinary medicine, a growing number of integrative vets are offering it.  AnimalBiome’s KittyBiome Gut Restoration Supplement is a non-invasive alternative to surgical fecal microbiota transplants. “This oral fecal transplant capsule reintroduces beneficial microbes from healthy cats,” says Dr. Ganz.

The state of your cat’s microbiome can have far-reaching effects on her general health, which means any imbalance can significantly impact her well-being, triggering anything from chronic diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, or IBD, to skin issues or even behavior problems. Taking steps to balance your cat’s microbiome will help keep her balanced and healthy overall!

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Let’s Talk About Dog Lipstick– a.k.a. the Dog Penis

The post Let’s Talk About Dog Lipstick– a.k.a. the Dog Penis by dogedit appeared first on Dogster. Copying over entire posts infringes on copyright laws. You might not understand it, however all of these articles were assigned, contracted and spent for, so they aren’t considered public domain. However, we appreciate that you like the short article and would like it if you continued sharing simply the first paragraph of a post, then linking out to the rest of the piece on

Dog lipstick has a particular, and a little paradoxical, ability to ruin the mood. Picture satisfying a happy-go-lucky, tail-wagging dog who rolls over onto his back for a stubborn belly rub from his brand-new best friend (that’s you). When this specific canine exposes his abdominal area, however, you get an eyeful, and it’s not just his stomach that you see. Also on view is a damp, pink, fleshy, and– if you’re share the opinion of most people– horrible protrusion, a.k.a. his canine penis. Once again, if you’re like most people, you will lose the desire to consider that dog a stomach rub.

Canine Lipstick, Dog Red Rocket and Dog Penis– Are They All the Same Thing?

Black dog with lipstick and eyes covered up.
Is that canine lipstick something to worry about?

Photo illustration by Madeleine Weiss. Stafford Terrier image. Photography by Ksenia Raykova/ Shutterstock. That protuberance” in the location of the penis”passes a variety of names. “Dog lipstick “and”red rocket”are two common colloquialisms. But the actual, proper name for the protuberance is:

canine penis. To comprehend pet dog lipstick you should first understand a bit about dog anatomy. That benign, lightly hair-coated appendage on your dog’s underside that you may have thought was his pet dog penis is not, in truth, his penis. It’s his prepuce. The prepuce is a sheath that safeguards the dog penis from injury on a day-to-day basis (it also safeguards our eyes from the sight of the penis).

The canine penis itself– or what some individuals call the canine lipstick– is pink, wet and fleshy. Many people do not like the sight of it. To add fuel to the fire, a percentage of nasty yellow fluid called smegma (the name of the fluid generally totals up to onomatopoeia) generally coats the penis itself.

Why, Then, Do Some Dogs But Not Others Frequently Show Off Their “Lipstick?”

A number of things can cause that canine lipstick to emerge from the prepuce. The first is arousal, and not simply that type of stimulation. In medicine, arousal refers to any kind of excitement whatsoever, such as might happen when a dog fulfills a beginner. Dogs experiencing basic stimulation may, in turn, establish just a little bit of the other type of stimulation. Simply put, thrilled canines sometimes establish slight erections. Erections cause this pet lipstick to emerge. The dog lipstick phenomenon is more typical in however is by no methods limited to un-neutered dogs.

Other pet lipstick sightings happen due to safe (to the pet) physiological anomalies. A size inequality in between penis and prepuce, or a canine penis that is prone to “drooping” out of the prepuce may result in frequent pet dog lipstick sightings. I have understood a couple of pet dogs whose penises never ever fully fit into their prepuces and were for that reason perpetually on view. These dogs experienced chronically dry penises but came to no significant damage.

What Should You Do About a Dog Lipstick That’s Been Out for an Extended Amount of Time?

Beige puppy with lipstick and eyes covered up.
And what if you’re seeing your pet’s lipstick for a prolonged quantity of time? Picture illustration by Madeleine Weiss. Pup portrait. Photography by otsphoto/ Shutterstock.

Although the majority of people don’t like canine lipstick sightings, most circumstances in which the dog penis is briefly visible are not hazardous to the canine involved. There is, however, an exception. The exception is a condition called paraphimosis.

Paraphimosis is a pathological extrusion of the pet dog penis from the prepuce. If the penis ends up being entrapped outside of the prepuce it may swell. Pain and tissue damage — — possibly serious tissue damage — — can result. Paraphimosis is a veterinary emergency situation.

Paraphimosis generally has a look that is more remarkable than mere dog lipstick. A big portion of the pet dog penis generally will be visible. It will likely appear noticeably swollen, and may be purple rather than pink (these are signs of inadequate blood circulation). The impacted canine may appear uncomfortable and might try to groom himself “down there” exceedingly.

Paraphimosis most regularly takes place as a result of sexual activity. Misdirected sex, such as a pet dog humping a leg or an inanimate item, triggers paraphimosis more commonly than real sex. Due to the fact that un-neutered canines are more likely to take part in this behavior, they are most likely to experience paraphimosis. However, the syndrome is by no ways restricted to them.

Here is the circumstance by which paraphimosis most frequently occurs. A pet participates in misdirected sex, triggering the penis to emerge from the prepuce. The prepuce typically has a thin coat of hair. The hair at the tip of the prepuce can block the opening of the prepuce, avoiding the penis from correctly withdrawing after the activity is over. Swelling, pain and other signs then start.

How to Treat Paraphimosis

Strong-stomached owners can attempt to deal with paraphimosis in the house. A water-based individual lubricant such as K-Y Jelly is applied to the penis, the hair at the suggestion of the prepuce is carefully drawn out from the opening, and the penis is re-inserted into the prepuce. Avoid utilizing unique individual lubes that cause warm or tingling feelings.

Some canines with paraphimosis will remain in too much pain to tolerate home treatment. Others will suffer from paraphimosis that is too extreme to be resolved at home. These pet dogs, or dogs owned by more squeamish individuals, need to receive veterinary attention as soon as possible (although it is still a great concept to apply lube to the penis to prevent it from drying out). They generally require sedation or perhaps general anesthesia for the penis to be replaced. After I treat paraphimosis I generally trim the hair from the tip of the prepuce to reduce the threat of recurrence; offered the sensitive nature of the site, this is a task that only an experienced specialist must attempt.

The bottom line on pet dog lipstick

Pet lipstick is unpleasant however generally harmless. Understand, however, that in some circumstances dog lipstick sightings might signify a serious issue.

Thumbnail: Photography © Ksenia Raykova/Thinkstock.

This post was originally published in 2013.

Find out more about the pet lipstick, canine red rocket or canine penis on

  • All About Dog Genitalia and Dog Reproductive Systems
  • How to Tell If a Puppy Is a Boy or a Girl
  • Why Do Female Dogs Hump? Reasons for Female Dog Humping

The post Let’s Talk About Dog Lipstick– a.k.a. the Dog Penis by dogedit appeared initially on Dogster. Copying over whole articles infringes on copyright laws. You might not know it, but all of these short articles were appointed, contracted and spent for, so they aren’t considered public domain. Nevertheless, we appreciate that you like the post and would love it if you continued sharing just the first paragraph of a post, then connecting out to the remainder of the piece on

Leading 10 ways to naturally support your pet or cat’s body immune system

Healthy immunity is among the structures of wellness for your canine or feline. Here are the 10 finest ways you can naturally support his body immune system.

You probably know that the body immune system is accountable for securing your canine or cat’s body (and your own!) from infections. But it does a lot more than that. The immune system also manages inflammation (the source of all chronic illness), reduces cancer cells, and helps determine and rid the body of chemicals, contaminants, bacteria, and so on. Clearly, a healthy immune system is vital for optimum wellness, so it’s essential to make immune care a big part of your dog or feline’s health routine. This article highlights 10 methods to naturally support your pet dog or cat’s immune system so that he stays as strong and healthy as possible.

Healthy resistance starts in the gut

What you may not know is that your pet dog or cat’s capacity for a healthy body immune system actually begins in his intestinal system. In truth, it is estimated that most of the immune system is based in the gut! This implies your dog or cat will be heartier, healthier, and more resilient to all type of diseases if he has a healthy gut. This ground absolutely no immune function relies substantially on 2 very essential aspects (see sidebar below).

With this knowledge, it is easy to comprehend that safeguarding and/or healing your dog or feline’s gut is a powerfully proactive method to keep him much healthier and less most likely to establish infections or diseases, and to enhance his vigor and longevity.

Top 10 recommendations for supporting immune health

Using a functional medicine method (see sidebar), we can now look at specific approaches and tools to support your dog or cat’s gut health, and consequently optimize his immune health. Another crucial goal is to reduce his exposure to the typical culprits that can reduce body immune system function, such as toxins in food and water, extreme vaccines, and overuse of prescription medications.

  1. Feed your pet dog or cat a balanced, fresh, or low-processed diet that contains species-appropriate active ingredients. Heavily-processed foods that contain high carb portions (i.e. most commercial family pet foods) modify the gut microbiome and trigger swelling, which can cause leaky gut syndrome, gastrointestinal issues, body immune system compromise, etc. Processed pet foods likewise consist of a lot of ingredients and preservatives, in addition to the glyphosates/herbicides used in growing the components.
  2. Provide a trace element supplement, such as in the type of kelp or seaweed powder. Trace minerals are typically deficient in all diet plans, yet are strategically crucial in immune health, endocrine health, digestion, and all organ system function. This group of minerals consists of magnesium, selenium, zinc, potassium, and iodine.
  3. Offer an everyday serving of fermented foods to your animal. Fermented foods can out-perform many probiotics by naturally offering a broad variety of advantageous bacteria/microbes, digestive enzymes, minerals, and so on. This promotes healthy digestion and a healthy intestinal tract environment. Fermented food alternatives for pet dogs and cats include kefir/raw fermented dairy, little amounts of fermented veggies, fermented fish stock, etc.
  4. . Add a digestion enzyme supplement to his meals every day. The ancestral diet plans of dogs and cats were not prepared, especially not at the heats utilized in modern-day industrial family pet food processing. Enzymes are damaged at temperature levels above 115 ° F. Adding gastrointestinal enzymes to your animal’s meals can support better digestion and gut health.
  5. Provide colostrum as a day-to-day supplement. Bovine colostrum is a natural and powerful healing food for your animal’s gut and whole body. It provides immune factors needed to safeguard and rebuild the gut lining and body immune system. This unique food likewise supplies development elements for the repair and recovery of the body. Think about utilizing a liposomal form of colostrum, which enables ideal shipment and absorption of these specialized nutrients in the gut.
  6. Add an everyday medicinal mushroom supplement to your animal’s food. Mushrooms such as Reishi, Shitake, Maitake, Cordyceps, Turkey Tail, and Lion’s Mane certify as “superfood” supplements, as they offer various health advantages. They are most acknowledged for immune modulation and anti-cancer properties, however also offer minerals, antioxidants, prebiotic fibers, and vitamin D.
  7. Add a clinoptilolite powder supplement to your pet dog or cat’s food when a day. Clinoptilolite is a type of zeolite, special mineral substances originated from the volcanic ash layer of the earth. Zeolites have a powerful adsorbent capacity within their molecular structure that traps and safely gets rid of toxic substances, chemicals, and heavy metals from the body. Zeolites also assist fix the gut and have immune support benefits too, including antiviral and anticancer residential or commercial properties. Additionally, clinoptilolite has no flavor, and is easily accepted by pets and cats when mixed into their food.
  8. Lessen ingestion and direct exposure to contaminants. Offer purified versus faucet water. Don’t spray your lawn or yards with pesticides. Limit using flea items and other chemicals as much as possible. Toxins can cause substantial damage to your pet or feline’s gut (and the rest of his body), leading to leaky gut syndrome, immune challenges, and numerous other health problems.
  9. Avoid over-vaccination. Excess vaccines can jeopardize the immune system. In addition, vaccines include adjuvants, components made from heavy metals or other poisonous chemicals. Go over best vaccination practices for your canine or cat with an integrative or holistic veterinarian, thinking about age, way of life, geographical area, etc. Go with titer screening in lieu of vaccination, whenever possible. Use homeopathic detox alternatives after vaccinations, such as Thuja or Lyssinum.
  10. Prevent overuse of medications, such as prescription antibiotics, antacids, and pain meds. Work with a holistic or integrative veterinarian to select natural alternatives whenever possible, such as natural solutions, homeopathic solutions, food-based supplements, and so on

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Dog Temperature: Everything You Need to Know, According to a Vet

The post Dog Temperature: Everything You Need to Know, According to a Vet by Beth Ann Mayer appeared first on Dogster. Copying over entire short articles infringes on copyright laws. You might not know it, however all of these articles were assigned, contracted and paid for, so they aren’t considered public domain. Nevertheless, we value that you like the short article and would love it if you continued sharing simply the very first paragraph of an article, then linking out to the remainder of the piece on

Pets are much like us in some ways– and I’m not just discussing the reality that often, they appear like us. As holds true in human health care, a puppy’s temperature level is an excellent indication of their total health.

However what is a regular dog temperature level? Dr. Chris Roth, DVM, from Pets Best Pet Health Insurance, says a pet’s temperature level is usually between 100-103 degrees Fahrenheit. Anything greater or lower might be a sign something is up– though not constantly. Dr. Roth went over all things dog temperature level, including what it means and what to do if the reading is out of variety.

Why might a canine temperature level reading be out of range?

We often consider out-of-range temperature levels as fevers. And they can be. But sometimes, a dog’s temperature level is too low.

“It might be hypothermia … if they have been out in the cold too long,” says Dr. Roth.

If your pet is running a fever, it might be an indication of infection– but the essential expression here is “could be.”

“A pet dog might be overheated from remaining in the sun, worried, overexercised, or confined to a space without sufficient circulation,” Dr. Roth says

How to take your pet’s temperature level

You can get a concept of your pet dog’s total health by taking their temperature level. You don’t need to do it every day, however Dr. Roth suggests taking it regularly at first using a rectal thermometer.

“Take it several times, so you know you’re pet’s typical,” he states. “After that, if they are acting typical, healthy and delighted, there’s no need.”

What does irregular habits imply?

Sluggish behavior suggests both high or low temperature levels, and quick breathing is a cue your pup may be running a fever.

“They cool themselves by panting,” Dr. Roth says.

dog temperature
Photo: Getty Images What to do if the temperature is too high or low So, you took your pet’s temperature, and it’s out of variety. Should you worry? Not yet. Dr. Roth says that you need to call your vet right away if the canine’s temperature level is below 98 or above 103 degrees. But if it’s simply a touch out of range, attempt retaking it. That’s what vets do, too. “You need to take [pet temperature level readings] with a grain of salt,”he says.” At the veterinarian, if the pet dog is stressed out or the owners have actually been waiting out in the sun, the pet might have 102.8 or something. We may want to wait a bit and let the pet cool off before taking the temperature again.”

If your canine’s temperature level is too low, Dr. Roth suggests warming them with a blanket or dog coat. Canines with temperature levels that are high could benefit from a room-temperature bath and a lot of fluids. You can also blow them with a fan. Avoid offering your pup an ice bath.

“It cools them down too quickly and can cause shock,” he states.

If it’s repeatedly out of range, call your vet for a check-up.

The post Dog Temperature: Everything You Need to Know, According to a Vet by Beth Ann Mayer appeared initially on Dogster. Copying over whole articles infringes on copyright laws. You may not understand it, but all of these posts were designated, contracted and paid for, so they aren’t thought about public domain. However, we value that you like the post and would love it if you continued sharing simply the very first paragraph of a post, then connecting out to the remainder of the piece on

My pet doesn’t like kids– what should I do?

If your canine does not like kids, counter-conditioning, desensitization, and other training methods can help him feel more comfortable in the presence of children.

Kids and dogs typically form wonderful relationships. However some pets are uncomfortable around kids and might respond with worry. They may walk away, hide, or bark and lunge at kids. Why is that? Certainly, a pet dog that was taunted or teased by children in the past is most likely to remember this experience and type unfavorable associations with kids. But often, a pet’s discomfort around kids comes from the lack of exposure to them during puppyhood. Here’s what to do if your own pet dog reacts negatively towards children.

1. Change the method your pet dog feels about kids

We can change our dog’s unfavorable sensations toward something and develop brand-new positive associations by rewarding her (e.g. with food) when the fear trigger (i.e. a child) appears. This technique is called “counter-conditioning”. As soon as your canine looks towards the child, rapidly feed her a number of bite-sized treats and continue to do so as long as the child remains in sight. When the kid is no longer in sight, the rewards stop. Your pet does not need to perform any behavior in order to be rewarded. You are just teaching her that when a kid appears, wonderful things take place: she gets yummy deals with.

It is important to start at the distance at which your dog notifications the kid however does not react. This indicates you are keeping her under her “tension management limit”. This distance differs from dog to pet; it can be anywhere from a couple of feet to an entire block far from the kid. Over time, slowly decrease the range at a speed that your dog can deal with. You may likewise add an expression to prepare your dog. In a happy tone, state: “Look, there’s a kid.” When your pet dog takes a look at the child, give her a reward. Eventually, she may seek to the kid and then right away turn to you. When this happens, praise and reward her enthusiastically due to the fact that this is the habits you want. You will require to apply the counter-conditioning method regularly over an extended period, so carry treats with you whenever you take your dog out.

If your pet is uneasy around rambunctious kids but gets along as long as they are calm, a quite kid can assist you with counter-conditioning. Provided it is safe to do, and under your guidance, the kid can feed your pet dog treats, reward her for carrying out a basic habits that she understands (e.g. sit), or carefully pet her as long as your pet enjoys it. The child must be mature enough to follow guidelines. Keep interactions short and favorable.

If you require assistance or encounter any issues, seek the assistance of a professional favorable reinforcement trainer.

2. Discover how pet dogs interact To determine how your dog feels about a circumstance, it is important to have an understanding of canine body movement and find out to recognize tension signals. Numerous signs of stress are much more subtle than barking or lunging. Search for the following warnings from your canine:

  • Looking away from the kid
  • Turning his head or whole body far from the child
  • Leaving
  • Yawning
  • Lip licking
  • Raising one front paw
  • Revealing the whites of his eyes
  • Tucking his tail
  • Holding his ears back or flattened versus the head
  • Moving gradually
  • Being still
  • Stiffening his body
  • Shaking

As soon as you see any of these signals, remove your pet dog from the circumstance to prevent any escalation. Numerous pet dog bites could be avoided if these stress signals were acknowledged early on. The next time you enjoy among those viral videos revealing kids and pets, see carefully for these stress signals. You will be amazed to find numerous “charming” videos actually depict pet dogs in distress.

3. Desensitize your dog to frightening situations

Even with the very best avoidance and management strategies, unforeseen things happen. A child may all of a sudden run toward your canine, unexpectedly touch or hug him, or pull his tail. You can prepare your pet for these frightening circumstances by methodically desensitizing him.

Get your pet used to fast motions by practicing with him yourself in a controlled environment. Make sure you start at a speed and range that your pet can manage. You might need to begin with walking, then jogging, then running towards your dog. Very gradually increase your pace and the intensity of your motions. Praise and reward your pet and never go past his comfort level.

To get your pet dog used to unexpected touches, start by gently touching him all over his body. If he endures being touched all over, relocate to gently pulling his ears and tail, nudging and even hugging him. Develop very gradually; for instance, hug him lightly for a quick 2nd, then develop to slowly hugging him a bit tighter and after that for a little bit longer. After each action, benefit him with a delicious treat. The objective is not to make your canine uncomfortable, however to increase his tolerance for those uneasy scenarios should they ever happen.

You can desensitize your canine in this manner to any situations that scare him which he might encounter in reality — — e.g. stepping over him while he is lying down, touching him when he is not looking, or sudden loud noises. Always begin at a level where your pet is comfortable and then gradually develop on that. And constantly make it a positive experience for him. If he reveals signs of stress, you advanced too quickly. Go back to a level where he was comfy and develop from there.

4. Teach your dog replacement behaviors

Fundamental behaviors ought to remain in every pet dog’s collection. Assist your dog browse the human world by teaching her what you desire her to do instead of penalizing her for undesirable habits. To prevent your pet dog from chasing after children, you can teach her a number of alternative behaviors:

“Stay” and “leave it” are impulse control habits. If your pet dog understands how to sit or lie down and stay around diversions, you can ask her to perform this behavior instead of approaching kids. The same opts for “leave it”. This hint does not just indicate leaving food or objects however, when generalized, applies to anything that you desire your pet to retreat from, consisting of other canines, squirrels, and kids.

Must your pet chase after a child, a solid recall will enable you to call your pet back. This is an essential habits for every single canine to learn.

A fun substitute habits is the “find it” game. State “find it” then toss a reward on the ground. Play this video game often, and your pet will eventually put her nose to the ground to look for deals with as quickly as she hears the words “discover it”. This is a great tool for redirecting your pet dog’s attention while you pass children on the walkway. You may likewise play the video game in the existence of children to produce a positive association.

5. Regard your canine’s feelings

Dogs and kids can form friendships that last for life. However not every dog takes pleasure in the company of children. We need to be our pet dogs’ advocates and not require them to communicate with kids — — or anybody for that matter — — when they choose not to.

Apply the counter-conditioning method consistently. Be patient and address a pace your dog is comfy with. While you can do a lot to help your dog to be less fearful of children, the worry might never ever snuff out entirely. He may never ever love kids, however if you are consistent with your training, prevention and management, while keeping it positive and appreciating your dog’s feelings, you should have some success.

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